Landfill in the United Kingdom
When it comes to disposing off waste in United kingdoms the landfill is the hugely recognized option and is known as BPEO (Best Practicable Environment Option). For the application of EC fifth Program of Policy and Action with relation to substantial and environmental development government of United kingdoms has prepared the waste strategy. This strategy speaks about the more and more use of landfill so to achieve stabilization of sites at landfill with in period of a decade.
This policy needs it implementation via guidance, which has been settled out as a series of revision for waste management on landfill papers. Moreover, a number of countries along with UK are parties to the Earth Summit sustainable agreement of 1992. The strategy for this purpose was published in UK in year 1994. The strategy requires huge support from the present generation of UK for processing and developing right way for the waste management thus creating no fuss for coming generations.
In respect to the increased quantities of the waste production that are being dumped off in the landfills are being imposed off taxes by the government of the UK. Landfill operators have to seek for a governmental license under the EPA (Environmental Protection Act).
Landfill operators that are using the location also for recycling and incineration purposes have to seek a tax-free application for that area. The monitoring of the taxes is in hands of HM custom and revenue. It has been estimated that taxes from landfill authorities are raising more then 500 million pounds per year.
EPA Part II (1990)
As soon as the waste management licensing regulations were implemented in year 1994, the part I of the CPA 1947 was replaced with the EPA 1990 in may 1996. This Act was put in to action under the system as is placed by COPA. This system lets the licensing regulations stricter while other provisions were also asked to be followed strictly. This system has the view that waste management is not just the responsibility of local government but infact it needs to be managed by the person who is producing it. It was further added with the system that only “fit and proper” persons are liable to run the business of waste management so they must take in to consideration human and environment’s health and well-being.
Before the EPA was implemented, the waste operators were free to hand back their licenses for waste management with out going through any hurdle. Therefore, the increasing concerns about the waste management and well being let almost twenty-five percent of waste operators to hand back their license for the sites in Wales and England. With the implementation of EPA and its Section 39 there was no way left for the waste operators to hand back their license until the party to hand back license satisfying the authorities.
The landfill Directive council EC did agreed in Europe on 26 April 1999 to become the acting force in EU in year 2001 on 16th of July. This was lately transformed in to UK law in year 2002. The complete text was then published with the official journal for European communities.
The directive council has aim to bring harmony to the controls at the landfills throughout the EU. This council had its focus over the standard designs, aftercare and operation of the landfill sites in EU. Another aim for the directive council was to take control over the amount of methane as is produced in landfills. The United Kingdoms had a vast requisite target and in 1997, they had agreed to check out and control over the green house emission gas cut down.
With the aim for cutting down the emission of methane gas, the directive council approached to give three progressive targets for the state members in order to reduce the biodegradable waste in municipality was sent to the landfill. This waste was particularly targeted because it was the chief contributor for the production of methane gas. The targets were then set for the most influential waste stream. The directive council however requires the effective working to achieve the set targets.
The article five of the Directive has the targets to be achieved and they are:
- It was said in the directive that the states which are member needs to implement a national strategy for the diminution of biodegradable waste that needs prevention from going to the landfills. This national strategy if planned needs to be notified to the commission strategy with in the period of two years. The national strategy needs to have all the measures included with it to achieve all the targets as are put forward in the second paragraph.
- the national strategy must be capable for ensuring:
- after five years from the laid date of strategy the biodegradable waste going to landfills must be cut down to 75 percent.
- Within eight years from the laid date for the national strategy, the biodegradable waste from municipalities must reduce to fifty percent out of total biodegradable waste as was produced before laid date.
- Within fifteen years, the volume of the biodegradable waste must be cut down to thirty-five percent.
Achieving the Goals:
According to an estimate UK is dumping off its eighty-five percent of waste in landfills and they are quite impressively meeting the targets they had had set for themselves. The as is mentioned in the EC landfill directive so, it is observed that UK is taking steps at two levels to meet the challenge.
- They are limiting the use for landfill for the dumping off biodegradable waste.
- They are building up alternatives to have biodegradable waste dumped off.
The first step for meeting the challenge is the subjective part for the consultation document limiting landfill. This paper limits the use of landfill for dumping off biodegradable waste. UK is legally bound to this cutting short of BW dumping off at landfills and so they must meet this.
The second level for the waste management for landfill as are signaled by directive council is to work in the premises of some parts of UK i.e. Wales and England. This draft is a string upholder for the alternative ways development to have waste dumped or processed and kept from them being dumped off in landfills.
It is to be noted here that landfill directive had been implemented in the UK since 16 July of 2001 and this is the strategy to improve the standard of environment and reduce negative influences.