Waste Management Resources
Waste management is the precise name for the collection, transportation, disposal or recycling and monitoring of waste. This term is assigned to the material, waste material that is produced through human being activity. This material is managed to avoid its adverse effect over human health and environment. Most of the time, waste is managed to get resources from it. The waste to be managed includes all forms of matter i.e. gaseous, liquid, solid and radioactive matter.
The methods for the management of waste may differ for developed and developing nations. For urban and rural populations, industrial and residential areas it does differ as well. The management of waste in metropolitan and rural areas is general responsibility of the local government. While the waste that is produced by the industries is managed by the industry itself, incase it is non-hazardous.
Methods for dumping off waste:
Landfill: this method involves burying off the waste and this is the most common practice for the disposal of waste around the Globe. These landfills are quite often conventional with deserted and vacant locations around the cities. In case, landfills or borrow pits are designed carefully they can serve as economical and quite sanitized method for waste dumping. However, not much effectively designed and older landfills can cost a big amount to the government not just in terms of money but also in the environmental and health issues. Apart from the general poorly designed landfill’s common problems like wind-blown debris and generation of liquid, it can also cause production of gas, which is extremely hazardous. This gas can be a reason for production of odor, killing surface vegetation and greenhouse effects.
The characteristic, which is must for an up to date landfill, is inclusion of clay or leachate lining. The waste that is deposited is generally compressed for increasing the density and stability and later it is covered to have it prevented from vermin. One thing, which is addition to modern landfills, is the “gas extraction system” installation. This system is included to have the gas extracted from the borrow pit.
This is the dumping off method, which involves combustion for waste materials. This sort of dumping off for waste materials through incineration and temperature is known as “thermal treatment”. This method is utilized to convert waste materials in to gas, heat, ash and steam.
Incineration is conducted on both individual and industrial scale. This method is used for disposing off all sorts of matters. This generally is the most recognized practical method for disposing off perilous material. This however, is the conflict-ridden method for it causes the emission of perilous gases.
Incineration is a common practice in Japan because of scarcity of land, which facilitates through not requiring landfill for waste dumping. Two widely used terms, which are facilitating burning of waste material in furnace and boiler for generation of heat, electricity and steam, are (Waste-to-energy) WtW and (energy-from-waste)EfW.
The burning procedure in this method for waste disposal is never perfect so, fear for gas pollutants is mounting. Special concerns have been focused over some extremely importunate organics as dioxins. These organic products are created with the incinerator and they are causations for serious consequences affecting environment.
Methods for recycling:
Products like PVC, LDEP, PP and PS are recyclable though they are not collected for recycling. The material, which is composed of a single type, is recyclables and is much easy to work with. However, complex products are difficult to treat and so are complex for recycling.
Waste materials, which come in organic nature are treated through biological reprocessing. The waste materials with organic nature are plant, food and paper products. This reprocessing or recycling of this organic matter is put to biological decomposition which later if recycled in form of mulch or compost for landscaping and agricultural purposes. Additionally, the waste gas, which is collected from the process, is used for the production of electricity. The goal behind biological reprocessing is to control and speed up the natural decomposition for organic matter.
A numerous sort of composting techniques and methods for digestion are employed depending upon the requirement as if digestion is required for household heaps or industrial materials. There are diverse methods for biological reprocessing like anaerobic and aerobic techniques.
Recovery of Energy:
Waste materials can directly be combusted for the generation of energy as fuel or other method, indirect combustion can also be adopted for energy generation. Thermal treatment for recycling purpose included burning of waste for the generation of energy used for household purpose i.e. cooking and heating while the energy from recycling can also be produced at industrial level from boilers. Among thermal treatments you have two related kinds i.e. Pyrolysis and gasification. In these sorts of methods, materials are heated with little supply of oxygen at high temperature. This process is conducted in sealed vessels with high pressure. In Pyrolysis, the solid is converted in to liquid state and liquid is converted in to gas. These products of treatment can then be used for the production of energy. The residue that is left behind is generally known as “char”, which is further treated for the production of more useable products. In Gasification however, the material to be treated is directly converted in to SynGas (synthetic gas) which has hydrogen and carbon dioxide as its components.
Reduction and Avoidance Methods:
Another method for the management of the waste material is the avoidance for it being created and this method is generally named as “waste reduction”. The avoidance for waste production includes using the second-hand product and repairing the products you have broken in place of buying new things. Products are designed for refilling and reusing. Cutting down use of disposable things and producing products that are more complex.
Waste handling and transportation
Collection for waste material does vary from place to place and country to country. Domestic waste collection management does it work under the supervision of local government or by some private waste management company. Some areas, which are less populated or not much developed, have ceremonial systems for collection of waste. Following are mentioned few of the waste collection methods as are practiced around the world.
- For waste disposal and collection Curbside Collection, method has been adopted in Australia. Almost every residency is endowed with three garbage disposal bins, for recyclables, general waste and garden materials. The local municipality provides these bins however, some of houses have compost bin, which is not provided by municipality. Municipality, for encouraging recycling does provide larger bins for recyclables other than gardening and general waste. The waste which is produced by Municipal, commercial and constructional institutions is dumped at landfills while recyclables are recycled. ABS has remarked that recycling has the high rate and is mounting day by day. Apart for recycling energy is also being produced through waste. Landfills produce gas, which is used for burning as fuel for electricity generation.
- In European countries and some other locations around the globe, waste is collected through a system known as Enavc. This system involves conveying of garbage through underground vacuum system.
- In urban location in Canada, Curbside collection system is used, mostly. While in cities, waste collection is scheduled. Rural areas have their waste disposed by moving it to transfer stations. All collected waste is then disposed off at landfills.
Concepts for Waste Management
A number of concepts for waste management exist and vary around the World. A few out of them being general are mentioned below.
- Waste hierarchy: this concept refers to “3Rs”. This means Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. This concept have the waste management strategy has its basis in the prestige for waste reduction. This concept stands taller for more waste reduction plans.
- Extended producer reliability: this concept refers to the accountability of the producer to the complete life cycle of the products he manufactures.
-Polluters Pays Principle: this concept means that if you are the party who has the lion’s share in polluting environment then you have to pay for this. With reference to waste management, the polluter would have to pay the price for the waste to be completely disposed off.
Education and Awareness
Waste management is an area, which needs education and awareness for global preservation. A declaration is known as “Talloires Declaration”, which is concerned about the ever-increasing environmental pollution and diminution of natural resources. The education for waste management and pollution is very critical to the perseverance of global health and security of humankind. A number of universities and Vocational education institutions are working for the promotion of organizations working for this purpose. A number of supermarkets are today also playing their part in encouraging recycling with the introduction of “reverse vending machines”. These machines when are deposited with used recyclable container produce refunds from the recycling charges. Such machines are produced under brand names Tomra and Envipco.